High-Efficiency Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers
Dr. K. Lear

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Table of Contents

High-Efficiency Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers
Surface Emitting Lasers vs. Edge-Emitting Lasers
Slide #7
VCSEL Advantages
Gain vs. Loss Balance in EELs and VCSELs
VCSEL Epitaxial Structure
VCSEL Structures
Why Is Power Conversion Efficiency Important?
Improvements in VCSEL Characteristics
VCSEL Losses
Particles’ Idea of a Great A1GaAs Mirror Stack
Improved Mirror Grading Designs
Lateral Resistance Dominates in Annular VCSELs
Low Voltage, Efficient VCSEL Characteristics
High Singlemode Output Power
Threshold Current Scaling in Implanted Devices
AlxOy-Defined VCSEL
Oxide VCSEL Geometries
Oxidation Rate is Sensitive to Small Gallium Content
A1As-Oxide Properties
Selectively Oxidized VCSEL
Oxidized VCSEL Cross Sections
Oxide Confined VCSELs Achieve 50% Power Conversion Efficiency at Output Powers of 1 mW
Comparison of Highest Power Conversion Efficiency Implant and Oxide Confined VCSELs
High Efficiency GaAs VCSEL
High Efficiency InGaAs VCSEL
Threshold Current Scaling with Size
Comparison of Light-Current Characteristics of Oxide and Implant Confined VCSELs
Tapered Oxide Optics in VCSEL Cavity
Sub-40uA Oxide-Confined VCSEL
Sub-Shot Noise Operation of VCSEL
High Speed Oxide Confined VCSEL
High Speed VCSEL Equivalent Circuit
Small VCSELs are single mode over the entire range
Fiber Coupled Characteristics of Single Mode VCSEL
Modulation Response of Single Mode VCSEL
Frequency and Damping Rate Dependence
Bias Dependent Frequency Response of Large VCSEL Large Signal Bias and ECL Modulation Points
6 Gb/s Modulation With Low Level Above Threshold
6 Gb/s Modulation With Low Level Below Threshold
VCSEL Applications
HP 1x9 Gigabit VCSEL Module
Applications for Red VCSELs

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